Paper: WRE-2015-08

Smart Cardinal Marks powered by renewable energy systems

Authors:  Martinez-Sanchez, Ricardo (ORCID:

Abstract: Focused on the use of renewable energy sources in the context of cardinal marks used in nautical applications. Specifically, this project aims to design a smart cardinal mark with  an autonomous energy system based on solar energy and energy storage system with lithium batteries.

Cardinal marks are an essential element in the navigation area, warning about potential risks which are not visible to the naked eye. An specific symbol at the top of the buoy and a universal sweeping light sequence code, determine the deeper water in relation with the obstacle. North (N), South (S), East (E), West (W), are the options.

In order to have the chance to change the cardinal mark depending on our necessity, a control system is integrated to increase the efficiency of  the device and to introduce customization capability.

Basic elements of the design are PV solar modules,  bidirectional Flyback Converter operating as battery management System (BMS), Li-ion Battery Cells, LED Drivers and MCU Control which incorporate customization and energy saving  strategies.

Status: Rejected

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Date: July 2015

Issue: 3

Keywords: Cardinal Mark, Nautical Buoy, Solar Energy, Smart System, Energy Storage, Lithium Batteries, Microcontroller, Power Electronics

Language: Spanish